Do you know how J Hadi Bakhtiyar Khilji, who burnt the world famous Nalanda University, died???
Actually this is the story of 1206 AD…!
In 1206 AD a fervent voice resonates in Kamrup…
“Bakhtiar Khilji, you have come to the land of Kamrup (Assam) after burning the temple of knowledge Nalanda… “… King Prithu
And, after that on March 27, 1206, a battle was fought on the soil of Assam which is inscribed in golden letters in the history of human identity.
Such a battle in which the soldiers of an army come to fight, then there are 12 thousand and only 100 left alive.
Those who have read the history of wars know that when two armies fight, one of the forces either flees in the middle of defeat or surrenders…
But, 12 thousand soldiers fought in this battle and only 100 were injured.
There is probably no such example in the history of the world.
Even today there is an inscription near Guwahati on which it is written about this battle.
At that time Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji was moving towards Assam, conquering many kings of Bihar and Bengal.
During this time he burnt down the Nalanda University and killed thousands of Buddhist, Jain and Hindu scholars.
The world’s priceless books, manuscripts, records etc. were burnt to ashes in Nalanda University.
This Je Hadi Khilji was originally from Afghanistan and was a relative of Muhammad Ghori and Qutubuddin Aibak.
Alauddin Khilji of the later period was also his relative.
In fact, he wanted to join Je Hadi Khilji, Nalanda and go to Tibet via Assam.
Because, at that time, Tibet was an important center of trade between China, Mongolia, India, Arabia and the countries of the Far East, so Khilji wanted to capture it.
But, standing in his way was Raja Prithu of Assam who was also known as Raja Barthu…
A battle took place between the two near modern Guwahati.
King Prithu swore that under any circumstances he would not allow Khilji to cross the Brahmaputra river and go to Tibet.
He and his tribal warriors brutally cut the Khilji’s army with poisoned arrows, khukris, spears and short but deadly swords.
Panicked by the situation…. Khilji along with many of his soldiers started running away by taking advantage of the forest and the mountains…!
But, the people of Assam were born warriors.
And, even today no one can run away from them in the world.
He pierced those fugitive Khiljis with his thin but poisonous arrows.
In the end, Khilji started apologizing by kneeling on the ground, saving only 100 of his soldiers.
King Prithu then took his soldiers captive to him and left Khilji alone alive, loaded him on a horse and said that
“You go back to Afghanistan…
And, tell whoever you meet on the way that you had burnt Nalanda, then you have found King Prithu… that’s all to say to the people….”
Khilji was so humiliated along the way that when he reached back to his place, hearing his story, his own nephew Ali Mardan beheaded him.
But, how sad that a town in Bihar is named Bakhtiyarpur in the name of this Bakhtiyar Khilji and there is also a railway junction.
Whereas, the inscription bearing the name of our king Prithu also has to be found.
But, when a petition has to be filed in the court to change the name of India to India, then it can be understood why this would happen.
Why did Bakhtiyar Khilji destroy Nalanda University?
Nalanda University was attacked thrice but the most devastating attack was in 1193 by Bakhtiyar Khilji. As a result, the oldest Nalanda University was destroyed by burning. Let us study through this article how Nalanda University declined and what were the reasons behind it. Also some important facts about Nalanda University.
Nalanda University was the most important and world famous center of higher education in ancient India. It is one of the oldest university in the world. It was founded in the 5th century by Emperor Kumaragupta, the ruler of the Gupta dynasty and adopted the title of Mahendraditya. The university is located near a village in Patna, 88.5 km south-east of present-day Bihar state and 11.5 km north of Rajgir.
In this university of Mahayana Buddhism, Hinayana Buddhism was taught along with other religions and students from many countries came to study. Many inscriptions and travel details of Chinese travelers Hiuen Tsang and Itsing, who came to India in the seventh century, give detailed information about this university. The Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsang took education here for almost a year. Let us tell you that this was the first fully residential university in the world and at that time it had about 10,000 students and about 2,000 teachers. To get education in this, students used to come not only from different regions of India but also from Korea, Japan, China, Tibet, Indonesia, Persia and Turkey. Let us study through this article how Nalanda University declined and what were the reasons behind it. How and when did Nalanda University fall
According to the records, Nalanda University was destroyed thrice by the invaders, but it was rebuilt only twice.
The first destruction was during the reign of Skandagupta (455–467 AD) of Hyun under Mihirkul.
This was the reason. But Skandagupta’s successors got the library repaired and improved with a bigger building.
The second destruction was done by Gaudas in the early 7th century. This time, the Buddhist king Harshavardhana (606-648 AD) got the university repaired.
The third and most devastating attack was the destruction of the ancient Nalanda University in 1193 by the Ottoman general Ikhtiyaruddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji and his army. It is believed that due to the burning of religious texts, Buddhism, emerging as a major religion in India, suffered a setback for hundreds of years and since then it has not fully emerged from these events.
At that time Bakhtiyar Khilji had captured some areas ruled by Buddhists in North India and once he fell very ill. He got a lot of treatment from his Hakims, but he could not recover and reached a dying condition.
Then someone advised him to show Acharya Rahul Sribhadra, head of Ayurveda department of Nalanda University and get treatment done. But Khilji was not ready for this. He had more faith in his officers. He was not ready to believe that Indian Vaidyas had more knowledge than his Hakims or could be more capable.
But to save his life, he had to call Acharya Rahul Sribhadra, head of the Ayurveda department of Nalanda University. Then Bakhtiyar Khilji put a strange condition in front of Vaidyaraj and said that I will not take any kind of medicine given by him. He can cure it without medicine. Vaidyaraj accepted his condition after thinking and after a few days he reached Khilji with a Quran and said that the page number of this Quran.
Bakhtiyar Khilji read the Quran as told by Vaidyaraj and was cured. It is said that Rahul Sribhadra had applied a medicine paste on some pages of Quran, he went on reading those pages with spit and went on getting better. Khilji became troubled by the fact that an Indian scholar and teacher had more knowledge than his Hakims. Then he decided to destroy the roots of knowledge, Buddhism and Ayurveda from the country. As a result, Khilji set fire to the great library of Nalanda and burnt about 9 million manuscripts.
It is said that there were so many books in Nalanda University that they kept burning for three months. After this, on the orders of Khilji, the Turkish invaders also killed thousands of religious scholars and monks of Nalanda.
Tabaqat-i-Nasiri is a book written by Persian historian ‘Minhajuddin Siraj’. In this, information about the conquest of India of Muhammad Ghori and the early history of the Turkish Sultanate is found till about 1260 AD. Minhaj dedicated this work to Nasiruddin Mahmud, the ruler of the Ghulam dynasty.
At that time Minhaj was the chief Qazi of Delhi. In this book ‘Minhajuddin Siraj’ also told about Nalanda University that Khilji and his Turkish army burnt thousands of monks and scholars to death because he did not want Buddhism to spread. He wanted to spread the religion of Islam. He set fire to the library of Nalanda, burnt all the manuscripts and continued to burn for several months.
Some important facts related to Nalanda University
The word Nalanda is derived from three Sanskrit words ‘Na + Alam + Da’. It means ‘put no restriction on the gift of knowledge’.
About 90 lakh manuscripts and thousands of books were kept in the library of Nalanda.
Nalanda University is considered to be the second oldest university, after Taxila. Do you know that it existed for 800 years?
The history of Nalanda University was discovered by Hiuen Tsang and Itsing of China. Both of them came to India in the 7th century. He also called it the largest university in the world.
Selection in this university was done on the basis of merit and free education was given. Along with this, their stay and food were also completely free.
There were about 10,000 students and 2000 teachers in this university.
In this university, not only India but students from other countries like Korea, Japan, China, Tibet, Indonesia, Iran, Greece, Mongolia etc. used to come to study.
Many such coins have been found in Nalanda, from which it is known that it was established in the fifth century by the ruler of Gupta dynasty, Kumaragupta.
The purpose of making this university was to create a place for meditation and spirituality and it is said that Gautam Buddha himself came and stayed here many times.
The library of Nalanda University was of 9 floors and had three parts: Ratnaranjak, Ratnodadhi and Ratnasagar. Do you know that there was also a library named ‘Dharma Goonj’ in it.
Many other scholars had studied in this university like Harshavardhana, Dharmapala, Vasubandhu, Dharmakirti, Aryaveda, Nagarjuna etc.
At that time many subjects were taught here like Literature, Astrology, Psychology, Law, Astronomy, Science, Warfare, History, Maths, Architectural, Linguistics, Economics, Medicine etc.
The most important thing about this university was that any decision was taken with the consent of everyone, that is, along with the teachers, the students also gave their opinion. That is, there was a democratic system here.
Remains of Nalanda University have been found in 1.5 lakh square feet. It is believed that this is only 10% of this university.Danda University is the second oldest university in the world which was destroyed by Ikhtiyaruddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji.
That is, it would not be wrong to say that the placenta